Cristiana Santos

Assistant Professor, Utrecht University

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Publications in the field of “Privacy and Data Protection”, and “Legal informatics applied to Data Protection and Consumer Law”. Service. Contacts.

Research Profile

I am an Assistant Professor at the School of Law, Utrecht University. I am teaching in the Law and Technology Masters and coordenating the bachelor course on Regulating Big Tech. I hold a PhD in Law and Technology and Informatics from the University of Luxembourg and Bologna.

My research area is Privacy and Data Protection.

My research interests include:

The goal of my research is to make legal information structured and actionable for legal compliance, for models and tools. I extract legal requirements from legal sources and, with this domain knowledge, I collaborate with computer scientists and designers to identify the technical requirements for a concrete technology. I also collaborate with Inria PRIVATICS Team. Currently I am working on the GDPR/ePrivacy Directive requirements for: #Consent #Purposes #SAR, and lawfulness of #Darkpatterns.

My drive is to discover problematic practices from organizations within case-studies, and inform policy makers with ground-based analytical research to address gaps in law & tech.

Previously, I was a lawyer and worked as legal adviser and lecturer at the Portuguese Consumer Protection Organization-DECO.

Recent News

Publications

Google Scholar, DBLP

I have published in the topics of Privacy and Data Protection, and Modeling legal information in Data Protection and Consumer Law. The table below summarizes the most influential publications:

Acronym Journals and Conferences
IEEE S&P IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy
CLSR Computer Law & Security Review Journal
APF Annual Privacy Forum
HCI Human Computer Interaction Conference
IPWE International Workshop on Privacy Engineering
PRIVON Privacy and the Semantic Web - Policy and Technology
TechReg Technology and Regulation Journal
AIL Artificial Intelligence and Law Journal
JURIX Int. Conf. Legal Knowledge and Information Systems

Privacy and Data Protection

Gray, C., Santos, C., Bielova, N., Toth, M., & Clifford, D. (2020). Dark Patterns and the Legal Requirements of Consent Banners: An Interaction Criticism Perspective. CHI 2021 - ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 2021, Yokohama, Japan. pp.1-18, ⟨10.1145/3411764.3445779⟩.[HCI2021(https://hal.inria.fr/hal-03117307)

Santos C., Bielova N., & Matte C. (2020). Are cookie banners indeed compliant with the law? Deciphering EU legal requirements on consent and technical means to verify compliance of cookie banners, International Journal of Technology and Regulation, 91-135.

Fouad I., Santos C., Kassar F. A., Bielova B., Calzavara S. (2020), On Compliance of Cookie Purposes with the Purpose Specification Principle. International Workshop on Privacy Engineering IWPE

Matte C., Santos C., Bielova N. (2020) Purposes in IAB Europe’s TCF: which legal basis and how are they used by advertisers? Annual Privacy Forum APF

Santos C Matte C., Bielova N. (2020) Are Dark Patterns Lawful? Analysis of Dark Patterns applied to Cookie Banner Design and Consent Requirements, abstract accepted, European Privacy Law Scholars Conference PLSC Europe

Matte C., Bielova N., Santos C. (2019). Do Cookie Banners Respect my Choice? Measuring Legal Compliance of Banners from IAB Europe’s Transparency and Consent Framework, IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. Impact: NOYB issued a complaint to the CNIL using our results and our browser extension. Selected media coverage: Lemonde.fr, Businessinsider.fr, Nextinpact.com

Boniface C., Fouad I., Bielova N., Lauradoux C., Santos C. (2019), Security Analysis of Subject Access Request Procedures How to authenticate data subjects safely when they request for their data, Annual Privacy Forum APF

Masseno M. D., Santos C. (2019). Personalization and profiling of tourists in smart tourism destinations - a data protection perspective. International Journal of Information Systems and Tourism (IJIST)

Bartolini C., Santos C., Ullrich C., (2017), Property and the Cloud, Computer Law and Security Review CLSR

Filtz E., Navas-Loro M., SantosC., Polleres A., Kirrane S. (2020) Events Matter: Extraction of Events from Court Decisions, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications (FAIA, 2020), Volume 334: Legal Knowledge and Information Systems

Bartolini C., Lenzini L., Santos C. (2019), An Agile Approach to Validate a Formal Representation of the GDPR, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications (FAIA, 2019), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer

Bartolini C., Lenzini L., Santos C. (2018), A Legal Validation of a Formal Representation of Articles of the GDPR, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance TERECOM 2018

Rodriguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Casanovas P., Gómez-Pérez A., Gracia J. (2018) A Linked Data Terminology for Copyright Based on Ontolex-Lemon. AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems (AICOL 2015-AICOL 2017)

Navas-Loro M., Santos C. (2018), Events in the legal domain – first impressions. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance TERECOM 2018

V. Opijnen M., Santos C. (2017), On the Concept of Relevance in Legal Information Retrieval, Artificial Intelligence and Law Journal, AIL

Santos C., Gangemi A., Alam M. (2017), Detecting and Editing Privacy Policies of Companies on the Web, Proc. 1st Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance TERECOM

Santos C., Pruski C., Silveira M., Rodríguez-Doncel V., Casanovas P., Van der Torre L., Gangemi A. (2017), Complaint Ontology Pattern, Advances in Ontology Design and Patterns, ODP

Santos C., Rodríguez-Doncel V., Casanovas P., Van der Torre L. (2016), Modeling Relevant Legal Information for Consumer Disputes, Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective, 2016 EGOVIS

Casanovas P., Rodríguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Gómez-Pérez A. (2016), A European Framework for Regulating Data and Metadata Markets. Society, Privacy and the Semantic Web - Policy and Technology, 2016 PrivOn

Santos C., Casanovas P., Rodríguez-Doncel V., Van der Torre L. (2016), Reuse and Reengineering of Non-ontological Resources in the Legal Domain, AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems (AICOL)

Santos C., Rodríguez Doncel V., Casanovas P. et al. (2016), An Approach for Modelling Relevance in Legal Ontologies, VII Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and the Complexity of Legal Systems (AICOL)

Rodríguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Casanovas P., Gómez-Pérez A. (2016), Legal Aspects of Linked Data: the European Framework, Computer Law & Security Review

Humphreys L., Santos C., Di Caro L., Boella G., van der Torre L., Robaldo L. (2015), Mapping Recitals to Normative Provisions in EU Legislation to Assist Legal Interpretation, in Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications (FAIA, 2015)

Rodriguez-Doncel V., Casanovas P., Santos C., Gómez-Pérez A. (2015), A Linked Term Bank of Copyright-Related Terms, in Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications (FAIA, 2015)

Bartolini C., Muthuri R., Santos C. (2015), Using ontologies to model data protection requirements in workflows, Proc. of the 9th Int. Work. on Juris-informatics (JURISIN, 2015), New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence. JSAI-isAI 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science,

Robaldo L., Humphreys L., Sun X., Cupi L., Santos C., Muthuri R. (2015), Combining Input/Output logic and Reification for representing real-world obligations, New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, JSAI-isAI 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Rodríguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Casanovas P. (2014), A Model of Air Transport Passenger Incidents and Rights, Proc. of the 27th Int. Conf. on Legal Knowledge and Information System (JURIX)

Rodríguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Casanovas P. (2014), Ontology-driven Legal Support-System in Air Transport Passenger Domain, Proc. of the Int. Workshop on Semantic Web for The Law 2014 (SW4Law)

Santos C. (2014), Enhancing the Decision-Making Process through Relevant Legal Information in Consumer Law Disputes - a Case Study in Air Transport Passenger Rights, Proceedings of the Second Doctoral Consortium Workshop (Jurix2014-DC), Best Paper Award

Santos C., Andrade F., Novais P. (2014), Sinergia na resolução de litígios em linha e a necessidade de proteção da privacidade e dos dados pessoais, Revista Democracia Digital e Governo Eletrônico

Santos C. (2014), Law by Design in ODR. Definition of relevant legal information in consumer law disputes to enhance the decision-making process. Group Decision and Negotiation, Proc. Joint International Conference of the INFORMS GDN Section and the EURO Working Group on DSS

Santos C. (2013), Increasing media richness in Online Dispute Resolution and the need for personal data protection, Proceedings of the First JURIX Doctoral Consortium Workshop in conjunction with the 26th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, JURIX 2013

Service

Program Committee Chair

-COnSeNT 2021, Workshop on Consent Management in Online Services, Networks and Things

Program Committee member

-S&P 2022

-PETs 2022

-PETs 2021, Privacy Enhancing Technologies Symposium

-APF 2021, Annual Privacy Forum

-IWPE 2021, International Workshop on Privacy Engineering

-RELATED 2021, International Workshop on Relations in the Legal Domain

-LIIE 2020, Workshop on Legal Issues in Intelligent Environments

-MIREL 2019, Workshop on Mining and Reasoning with Legal texts

-LIIE 2018, Workshop on Legal Issues in Intelligent Environments

-TERECOM 2018, Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance

-TERECOM 2017, Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance

Journals (Reviewer)

-TechReg 2021, Technology and Regulation

-CLSR 2019, Computer Law and Security Review

Scientific Expertise

• Expert of the Rapporteur Pegado Liz, European Social Economic Committee for the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on Online Dispute Resolution for Consumer Disputes, COM (2011) 794

• Participation on the study on Interest Rates Restrictions in Consumer Credit for the European Commission (2010)

Contacts

Email, Twitter, LinkedIn