Cristiana Santos

Postdoctoral Researcher, Inria

This project is maintained by Rel-incode

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Contact. Publications in the field of Privacy and Data Protection, Legal informatics applied to Data Protection and Consumer Law, and also of Space Law!!

I am Lecturer and researcher at the School of Law, Utrecht University, working on Law and Technology.

I also collaborate with Nataliia Bielova and Cédric Lauradoux from the PRIVATICS Team at Inria on legal and technical requirements for consent banners, dark patterns, and data subject rights, and I love to discover new insights from case studies we approach which have a social impact in our daily lives! Previously, I was a lawyer and worked as legal adviser and lecturer at the Portuguese Consumer Protection Organization-DECO.

Research Profile

The goal of my research is to make legal information structured and actionable for legal compliance, for models and tools. I extract legal requirements from legal sources. With this domain knowledge, I collaborate with computer scientists to both identify the technical requirements for a concrete technology, and to build ontologies. I am passionate about privacy and consumer protection and motivated to inform legal decision-makers on gaps between law & tech through ground analytical-based research.

Recent News

Publications

Google Scholar, DBLP

I have published 40 papers in the topics of Privacy and Data Protection, Modeling legal information in Data Protection and Consumer Law, and Space Law. The table below summarizes the most influential publications:

Acronym Journals and Conferences
IEEE S&P IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy
CLSR Computer Law & Security Review Journal
APF Annual Privacy Forum
IPWE International Workshop on Privacy Engineering
PRIVON Privacy and the Semantic Web - Policy and Technology
AIL Artificial Intelligence and Law Journal
JURIX Int. Conf. Legal Knowledge and Information Systems

Privacy and Data Protection

  1. Fouad I., Santos C., Kassar F. A., Bielova B., Calzavara S. (2020), On Compliance of Cookie Purposes with the Purpose Specification Principle. International Workshop on Privacy Engineering IWPE

  2. Matte C., Santos C., Bielova N. (2020) Purposes in IAB Europe’s TCF: which legal basis and how are they used by advertisers? Annual Privacy Forum APF

  3. Santos C Matte C., Bielova N. (2020) Are Dark Patterns Lawful? Analysis of Dark Patterns applied to Cookie Banner Design and Consent Requirements, abstract accepted, European Privacy Law Scholars Conference PLSC Europe

  4. Matte C., Bielova N., Santos C. (2019). Do Cookie Banners Respect my Choice? Measuring Legal Compliance of Banners from IAB Europe’s Transparency and Consent Framework, IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. Impact: NOYB issued a complaint to the CNIL using our results and our browser extension. Selected media coverage: Lemonde.fr, Businessinsider.fr, Nextinpact.com

  5. Santos C., Matte C., Bielova N. (2019). A legal-technical approach to compliance with EU laws on cookies, 4th European Privacy Law Scholars Conference PLSC Europe

  6. Boniface C., Fouad I., Bielova N., Lauradoux C., Santos C. (2019), Security Analysis of Subject Access Request Procedures How to authenticate data subjects safely when they request for their data, Annual Privacy Forum APF

  7. Masseno M. D., Santos C. (2019). Personalization and profiling of tourists in smart tourism destinations - a data protection perspective. International Journal of Information Systems and Tourism (IJIST)

  8. Masseno M.D., Santos, C. (2018), Between Footprints: Balancing Environmental Sustainability and Privacy in Smart Tourism Destinations (Special Article), United world Law Journal

  9. Masseno M.D., Santos C. (2018), Assuring Privacy and Data Protection within the Framework of Smart Tourism Destinations. In MediaLaws - Rivista di Diritto dei Media

  10. Masseno M.D., Santos C. (2018), Privacy and Data Protection Issues on Smart Tourism Destinations – A First Approach, in I. Chatzigiannakis et al. (Eds.). Intelligent Environments (IE, 2018)

  11. Bartolini C., Santos C., Ullrich C., (2017), Property and the Cloud, Computer Law and Security Review CLSR

Submitted journal (under review) Santos C., Bielova N., & Matte C. (2019). Are cookie banners indeed compliant with the law? Deciphering EU legal requirements on consent and technical means to verify compliance of cookie banners. [arXiv preprint] (https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.07144)

  1. Bartolini C., Lenzini L., Santos C. (2019), An Agile Approach to Validate a Formal Representation of the GDPR, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications (FAIA, 2019), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer

  2. Bartolini C., Lenzini L., Santos C. (2018), A Legal Validation of a Formal Representation of Articles of the GDPR, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance TERECOM 2018

  3. Rodriguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Casanovas P., Gómez-Pérez A., Gracia J. (2018) A Linked Data Terminology for Copyright Based on Ontolex-Lemon. AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems (AICOL 2015-AICOL 2017)

  4. Navas-Loro M., Santos C. (2018), Events in the legal domain – first impressions. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance TERECOM 2018

  5. V. Opijnen M., Santos C. (2017), On the Concept of Relevance in Legal Information Retrieval, Artificial Intelligence and Law Journal, AIL

  6. Santos C., Gangemi A., Alam M. (2017), Detecting and Editing Privacy Policies of Companies on the Web, Proc. 1st Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance TERECOM

  7. Santos C., Pruski C., Silveira M., Rodríguez-Doncel V., Casanovas P., Van der Torre L., Gangemi A. (2017), Complaint Ontology Pattern, Advances in Ontology Design and Patterns, ODP

  8. Santos C., Rodríguez-Doncel V., Casanovas P., Van der Torre L. (2016), Modeling Relevant Legal Information for Consumer Disputes, Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective, 2016 EGOVIS

  9. Casanovas P., Rodríguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Gómez-Pérez A. (2016), A European Framework for Regulating Data and Metadata Markets. Society, Privacy and the Semantic Web - Policy and Technology, 2016 PrivOn

  10. Santos C., Casanovas P., Rodríguez-Doncel V., Van der Torre L. (2016), Reuse and Reengineering of Non-ontological Resources in the Legal Domain, AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems (AICOL)

  11. Santos C., Rodríguez Doncel V., Casanovas P. et al. (2016), An Approach for Modelling Relevance in Legal Ontologies, VII Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and the Complexity of Legal Systems (AICOL)

  12. Rodríguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Casanovas P., Gómez-Pérez A. (2016), Legal Aspects of Linked Data: the European Framework, Computer Law & Security Review

  13. Humphreys L., Santos C., Di Caro L., Boella G., van der Torre L., Robaldo L. (2015), Mapping Recitals to Normative Provisions in EU Legislation to Assist Legal Interpretation, in Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications (FAIA, 2015)

  14. Rodriguez-Doncel V., Casanovas P., Santos C., Gómez-Pérez A. (2015), A Linked Term Bank of Copyright-Related Terms, in Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications (FAIA, 2015)

  15. Bartolini C., Muthuri R., Santos C. (2015), Using ontologies to model data protection requirements in workflows, Proc. of the 9th Int. Work. on Juris-informatics (JURISIN, 2015), New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence. JSAI-isAI 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science,

  16. Robaldo L., Humphreys L., Sun X., Cupi L., Santos C., Muthuri R. (2015), Combining Input/Output logic and Reification for representing real-world obligations, New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, JSAI-isAI 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science

  17. Rodríguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Casanovas P. (2014), A Model of Air Transport Passenger Incidents and Rights, Proc. of the 27th Int. Conf. on Legal Knowledge and Information System (JURIX)

  18. Rodríguez-Doncel V., Santos C., Casanovas P. (2014), Ontology-driven Legal Support-System in Air Transport Passenger Domain, Proc. of the Int. Workshop on Semantic Web for The Law 2014 (SW4Law)

  19. Santos C. (2014), Enhancing the Decision-Making Process through Relevant Legal Information in Consumer Law Disputes - a Case Study in Air Transport Passenger Rights, Proceedings of the Second Doctoral Consortium Workshop (Jurix2014-DC), Best Paper Award

  20. Santos C., Andrade F., Novais P. (2014), Sinergia na resolução de litígios em linha e a necessidade de proteção da privacidade e dos dados pessoais, Revista Democracia Digital e Governo Eletrônico

  21. Santos C. (2014), Law by Design in ODR. Definition of relevant legal information in consumer law disputes to enhance the decision-making process. Group Decision and Negotiation, Proc. Joint International Conference of the INFORMS GDN Section and the EURO Working Group on DSS

  22. Santos C. (2013), Increasing media richness in Online Dispute Resolution and the need for personal data protection, Proceedings of the First JURIX Doctoral Consortium Workshop in conjunction with the 26th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, JURIX 2013

Space Law

  1. Gal G.A., Santos C., Rapp L., Markovich R., Torre L., Artificial intelligence in space

  2. Santos C., Rapp L. Nudging Space – possible Governance for space (accepted to the IAC 2020)

  3. Santos C., Lucas-Rhimbassen M., Rapp L. (2020), Revisiting Liability and Insurance in the Age of Mega-constellations, Space Policy Journal (forthcoming)

  4. Santos C., Rapp L. (2019), Satellite Imagery, High Resolution and Potential Identification of Individuals under the GDPR, Air and Space Law Journal

  5. Santos C., Miramont D., Rapp L. (2019), High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Potential Identification of Individuals, Proc. of the 2019 conference on Big Data from Space (BiDS’2019)

  6. Lucas-Rhimbassen M., Santos C., Long G. A., Rapp L. (2019). “Conceptual model for a profitable return on investment from space debris as abiotic space resource”, 8th Conf. for Aeronautics and Space Sciences (EUCASS, 2019)

  7. Lucas-Rhimbassen M., Santos C., Rapp L. (2019), Mega constellations – Liability and insurance issues, 70th Int. Astronautical Congress (IAC, 2019) (forthcoming)

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